Towards Universal Energy Access: India’s Progress towards Sustainable Development Goals

The availability and utilization of energy has been crucial to human evolution throughout history. Energy statistics encompass the extraction, production, transformation, distribution, storage, trade, and consumption of energy products, as well as the key characteristics and activities of the energy industries. Primary production involves extracting fuels or energy from natural energy sources, biospheres, and fossil fuel reserves in a usable form within a national territory. The UNFC 2009 classifies resources based on financial sustainability, status of projects, and geological understanding. Primary energy generation entails extracting fuel from natural sources. India intends to enhance renewable energy use for both ecological and economic reasons. The country has large coal reserves, but it favors renewable energy.


India possesses some of the world’s richest coal reserves. As of 01-04-2022, assessed coal reserves totaled 361.41 billion tonnes, up 9.29 billion tonnes from the previous year. In 2022-23, total projected coal reserves increased by 2.64% compared to 2021-22.

The top three states with highest coal reserves in India are Odisha, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, which accounts for approximately 69% of the total coal reserves in the country.

The total potential for renewable power generation in the country as on 31.03.2023 is estimated at 2,109,654 MW.

Total installed capacity of coal washeries in India is 214.02 Million Tonne per year (MTY) as on 31.03.2022.

Similarly, as on 31.03.2023, there were a total of 23 refineries in the country, 19 in the Public Sector, 4 in the Private sector and Joint Venture.

In 2022-23, the installed capacity of electricity generation increased by 3.98% to 4,95,199 MW, up from 4,76,229 MW in 2021-22. Utilities account for 84.02% of the installed capacity. India’s energy mix is shifting from conventional to renewable sources. In 2022-23, the installed capacity of renewable energy sources (other than hydro) increased by 12.20% compared to the previous year.

In 2023, solar power (including rooftops) accounted for 53.4% of total installed renewable power generation capacity, followed by wind (34.1%) and bio-energy (8.2%).

Rajasthan had the most installed capacity of grid-connected renewable electricity (22,398 MW), followed by Gujarat (19,436 MW). Wind and solar power were the primary sources.India has been having consistent growth in the Off-Grid/Decentralized Renewable Energy System sector. Installation of solar street lighting systems (SLS) has increased by 1.1% compared to last year. Solar Photovoltaic Plants (SPV) have grown by 50.6% compared to last year.Developing countries and the international community face challenges in ensuring energy access, affordability, sustainability, and availability for local and global development.To prevent climate change, “decarbonization” of energy generation and usage by households and enterprises increases volatility in the international energy market, affecting both importers and exporters equally.India is likewise heavily dependent on crude oil imports to meet domestic demand.

Imports of crude oil grew from 184.80 MTs in 2012-13 to 226.95 MTs in 2019-20.

The import of natural gas has steadily increased over time.India imports significant amounts of power to meet its local demand.

The lack of reliable energy access is a global barrier to well-being, leading to a focus on renewable energy for sustainable development. Energy statistics are crucial for understanding and guiding sustainability efforts, covering extraction, production, and consumption of energy products. Energy resources include non-renewable sources in different forms, with reserves being recoverable based on technical and economic factors. Energy products, derived from renewable and non-renewable sources, are vital for energy consumption, emphasizing the importance of affordable, reliable, and sustainable energy services for global well-being. Sustainability in energy focuses on India’s commitment to reliable, sustainable, and efficient energy systems.

The availability of energy resources is critical for human growth, as energy meets a variety of vital demands and facilitates advancement. Access to dependable and clean energy is critical for global well-being, resulting in a shift toward renewable energy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Sustainable Development Goals aim to ensure universal access to affordable, reliable, and modern energy. India aims to achieve universal access to power. As of 31.03.2022, 100% of villages in each state were electrified, compared to the total number of villages in the country according to the 2011 census. Sustainable energy systems aim to improve long-term energy efficiency by increasing energy intensity, adopting cleaner technology, and incorporating renewable energy into a country’s energy mix.



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